These concepts are related to the sql statement in oracle and in RDBMS in general.
This is a vertical subset of table columns (the select list) , including all rows.
It may include one column, two columns or all table columns.
Projection answers the question: which columns the query shall return?
select empno , ename, job from emp;
This is a horizontal subset of table columns (some rows) , including all columns.
It may include one row, two rows or all table rows.
Selection answers the question: which rows the query shall return (the where condition)?
select * from emp where deptno = 10;
Usually, one query contains both: selection and projection:
select empno , ename , job from emp where deptno=10;